• Relative Pronouns
  • MMD
  • 30.06.2020
  • Weiterbildung
  • Englisch
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Re­la­ti­ve Pro­nouns

Re­la­ti­ve Pro­nouns

Re­la­ti­ve pro­nouns ope­ra­te as red­un­dan­cy for sub­jec­ts or ob­jec­ts which are re­fer­red to in a re­la­ti­ve clau­se. The most ac­cep­ted ones are: who, whom, which, that and whose.


  • can only be used for peo­ple
  • used in ques­ti­ons: which peo­ple or group, i.e. Who told you that?
  • points out which per­son or group is being re­fer­red to, i.e This is the girl who wan­ted to see you.
  • used to add further in­for­ma­ti­on


  • used as the ob­ject form of who,

       i.e. The stu­dent to whom I was

       open­min­ded is a sci­en­tist now.

  • only in very for­mal wri­ting

If you like to be old-​fashion for­mal, use "whom" in wri­ting and for­mal styles to refer to the per­son, when the per­son is the ob­ject.


  • 'whose' has a pos­ses­si­ve me­a­ning, be­longs to who, i.e. Whose book is this? I won­der whose book that is.
  • Pre­po­si­ti­on + whose as a com­ple­ment is more for­mal, i.e. Eli­sa­beth Pur­ple, with whose col­le­ague she used to teach, im­mi­gra­ted to Slo­va­kia.    


  • re­places the sub­ject, only for things, not peo­ple
  • re­fers to ob­jec­ts, can be left out with no Chan­ge in me­a­ning
  • ob­ject + pre­po­si­ti­on, i.e. the place at which she ar­ri­ved
  • add in­for­ma­ti­on, i.e. The class, which was well pre­pa­red, was a suc­cess.

That vs. Which

That does NOT like com­mas.

Which is bad with peo­ple.


  • used for sub­jec­ts: which are things and ani­mals
  • can be used for a per­son, who has a su­per­la­ti­ve com­ple­ment, i.e. best an­s­wer , grea­test so­lu­ti­on, smal­lest bit of in­for­ma­ti­on  
  • can be left out, when it re­pres­ents an ob­ject

Crea­te your own 'quick'n'dirty'- rule to all re­la­ti­ve pro­nouns, which are men­tio­ned.
  • Use the boxes with the book­marks for your notes.
Com­ple­te the sen­ten­ces by using re­la­ti­ve pro­nouns and un­der­line the words which are re­fer­red to.
All Child­ren … the stu­dents asked were eager to give an in­ter­view.
Marry met some­bo­dy last night … did the lin­gu­istic exam two years after Jim.
She de­s­troy­ed the pho­to­col­la­ge, … upset me.
You need to pick the pre­sent … has red dots.
The post­man asked Steff about Mr. Mil­ler … ad­dress he wan­ted to find.
The WM- final was the best game of soc­cer … I have ever seen.
They had three Child­ren, all of … went to uni­ver­si­ty.
Where is Mrs. Mo­ti­va­ti­on … is try­ing to con­vin­ce me to study.
Game Time: Have you heard of…?
  • Pair-​up and hide your treasu­re (3 squa­res ho­ri­zon­tal, ver­ti­cal or dia­go­nal) in your chart.
  • Your part­ner has the same chart, now try to lo­ca­te the treasu­re of your part­ner,
    by using re­la­ti­ve pro­nouns.
    e.g. "Have you heard of a te­acher who does funny games?
    Di­rect hit: Mrs. Dadd­le is a te­acher who does funny games.
    Missed: No I have not heard of …
  • Who found the treasu­re first?
    Have fun!






... a fish lives in an ane­mo­ne?


... a stone only con­sitst out of car­bon?


... an ani­mal finds water on three legs?


... a tree leafs are need­les?



… a na­ti­on built geo­me­tri­cal me­mo­ri­als?


... a city is fa­mous for salt?


... a prin­ce just got mar­ried?

Prin­ce Harry

... an ocean in you can float ?

Dead Sea


... a fruit should keep the doc­tor away?


... a dog tonge is blue?


... a coun­try pre­si­dent uses only 140 let­ter mes­sa­ges?


... a fairy tale cha­rac­ter grand­ma turns into a wolf?

Red Ri­ding Hood


... a stu­dent shall be a know-​it-all?


... a pe­d­ago­gy in child­ren can dance there names?


... a girl fri­ends are a horse and a mon­key?

Pippi Long­sto­cking

... a ve­ge­ta­ble the Ger­mans go crazy about?


Let's find the treasu­re!