• Relative Pronouns
  • MMD
  • 30.06.2020
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  • Relative Pronouns

    Relative Pronouns

    Relative pronouns operate as redundancy for subjects or objects which are referred to in a relative clause. The most accepted ones are: who, whom, which, that and whose.


    • can only be used for people
    • used in questions: which people or group, i.e. Who told you that?
    • points out which person or group is being referred to, i.e This is the girl who wanted to see you.
    • used to add further information


    • used as the object form of who,

           i.e. The student to whom I was

           openminded is a scientist now.

    • only in very formal writing

    If you like to be old-fashion formal, use "whom" in writing and formal styles to refer to the person, when the person is the object.


    • 'whose' has a possessive meaning, belongs to who, i.e. Whose book is this? I wonder whose book that is.
    • Preposition + whose as a complement is more formal, i.e. Elisabeth Purple, with whose colleague she used to teach, immigrated to Slovakia.    


    • replaces the subject, only for things, not people
    • refers to objects, can be left out with no Change in meaning
    • object + preposition, i.e. the place at which she arrived
    • add information, i.e. The class, which was well prepared, was a success.

    That vs. Which

    That does NOT like commas.
    Which is bad with people.


    • used for subjects: which are things and animals
    • can be used for a person, who has a superlative complement, i.e. best answer , greatest solution, smallest bit of information  
    • can be left out, when it represents an object

    Create your own 'quick'n'dirty'- rule to all relative pronouns, which are mentioned.
    • Use the boxes with the bookmarks for your notes.
  • 1
    Complete the sentences by using relative pronouns and underline the words which are referred to.
    All Children … the students asked were eager to give an interview.
    • that
    • who
    • which
    • whom
    Marry met somebody last night … did the linguistic exam two years after Jim.
    • which
    • that
    • whom
    • who
    She destroyed the photocollage, … upset me.
    • that
    • which
    • whom
    • who
    You need to pick the present … has red dots.
    • who
    • that
    • which
    • whose
    The postman asked Steff about Mr. Miller … address he wanted to find.
    • whose
    • whom
    • which
    • that
    The WM- final was the best game of soccer … I have ever seen.
    • which
    • who
    • whose
    • that
    They had three Children, all of … went to university.
    • who
    • which
    • whose
    • whom
    Where is Mrs. Motivation … is trying to convince me to study.
    • who
    • that
    • whom
    • which
    Game Time: Have you heard of…?
    • Pair-up and hide your treasure (3 squares horizontal, vertical or diagonal) in your chart.
    • Your partner has the same chart, now try to locate the treasure of your partner,
      by using relative pronouns.
      e.g. "Have you heard of a teacher who does funny games?
      Direct hit: Mrs. Daddle is a teacher who does funny games.
      Missed: No I have not heard of …
    • Who found the treasure first?
      Have fun!






    ... a fish lives in an anemone?

    ... a stone only consitst out of carbon?

    ... an animal finds water on three legs?

    ... a tree leafs are needles?



    … a nation built geometrical memorials?

    ... a city is famous for salt?


    ... a prince just got married?

    Prince Harry

    ... an ocean in you can float ?
    Dead Sea


    ... a fruit should keep the doctor away?

    ... a dog tonge is blue?

    ... a country president uses only 140 letter messages?


    ... a fairy tale character grandma turns into a wolf?
    Red Riding Hood


    ... a student shall be a know-it-all?


    ... a pedagogy in children can dance there names?

    ... a girl friends are a horse and a monkey?

    Pippi Longstocking

    ... a vegetable the Germans go crazy about?

    Let's find the treasure!