• Self-driving cars
  • Marcus Jacobs
  • 30.06.2020
  • Allgemeine Hochschulreife
  • Englisch
  • 12, 13
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Self-​driving cars - de­fi­ni­ti­on by Wi­ki­pe­dia

An au­to­ma­ted car (also known as a dri­ver­less car and a self-​driving car)[1] is a ve­hi­cle that is ca­pa­ble of sensing its en­vi­ron­ment and na­vi­ga­ting wit­hout human input.[2]

Au­to­ma­ted cars com­bi­ne a va­rie­ty of tech­ni­ques to per­cei­ve their sur­roun­dings, in­clu­ding radar, laser light, GPS, odo­me­try, and com­pu­ter vi­si­on. Ad­van­ced con­trol sys­tems in­ter­pret sen­so­ry in­for­ma­ti­on to iden­ti­fy ap­pro­pria­te na­vi­ga­ti­on paths, as well as obsta­cles and re­le­vant si­gna­ge.[3][4]

The po­ten­ti­al be­ne­fits of au­to­ma­ted cars in­clude re­du­ced mo­bi­li­ty and in­fra­struc­tu­re costs, in­cre­ased safe­ty, in­cre­ased mo­bi­li­ty, in­cre­ased cus­to­mer sa­tis­f­ac­tion, and re­du­ced crime. These be­ne­fits also in­clude a po­ten­ti­al­ly si­gni­fi­cant re­duc­tion in traf­fic col­li­si­ons;[5][6] re­sul­ting in­ju­ries; and re­la­ted costs, in­clu­ding less need for insurance. Au­to­ma­ted cars are pre­dic­ted to in­cre­ase traf­fic flow;[7] pro­vi­de enhan­ced mo­bi­li­ty for child­ren, the el­d­er­ly,[8] dis­ab­led, and the poor; re­lie­ve tra­ve­lers from dri­ving and na­vi­ga­ti­on cho­res; lower fuel con­sump­ti­on; si­gni­fi­cant­ly re­du­ce needs for par­king space;[9] re­du­ce crime;[10] and fa­ci­li­ta­te busi­ness mo­dels for trans­por­ta­ti­on as a ser­vice, es­pe­cial­ly via the sha­ring eco­no­my.[11][12] This shows the vast dis­rup­ti­ve po­ten­ti­al of the emer­ging tech­no­lo­gy.[13]

In spite of the va­rious po­ten­ti­al be­ne­fits to in­cre­ased ve­hi­cle au­to­ma­ti­on, there are un­re­sol­ved pro­blems, such as safe­ty, tech­no­lo­gy is­su­es, dis­pu­tes con­cer­ning lia­bi­li­ty,[14][15] re­sis­tance by in­di­vi­du­als to for­fei­ting con­trol of their cars,[16] cus­to­mer con­cern about the safe­ty of dri­ver­less cars,[17] im­ple­men­ta­ti­on of a legal frame­work and es­tab­lish­ment of go­ver­n­ment re­gu­la­ti­ons; risk of loss of pri­va­cy and se­cu­ri­ty con­cerns, such as ha­ckers or ter­ro­rism; con­cern about the re­sul­ting loss of driving-​related jobs in the road trans­port in­dus­try; and risk of in­cre­ased sub­ur­ba­niza­ti­on as tra­vel be­co­mes less cost­ly and time-​consuming. Many of these is­su­es arise be­cau­se au­to­no­mous ob­jec­ts, for the first time, would allow computer-​controlled ground ve­hi­cles to roam free­ly, with many re­la­ted safe­ty and se­cu­ri­ty, even a moral con­cerns.

Le­vels of au­to­ma­ti­on

Level 0: Au­to­ma­ted sys­tem is­su­es war­nings and may mo­men­ta­ri­ly in­ter­ve­ne but has no sus­tained ve­hi­cle con­trol.Level 1 („hands on“): The dri­ver and the au­to­ma­ted sys­tem share con­trol of the ve­hi­cle. Ex­amp­les are Ad­ap­ti­ve Crui­se Con­trol (ACC), where the dri­ver con­trols stee­ring and the au­to­ma­ted sys­tem con­trols speed; and Par­king As­sis­tance, where stee­ring is au­to­ma­ted while speed is under ma­nu­al con­trol. The dri­ver must be ready to re­t­a­ke full con­trol at any time. Lane Kee­ping As­sis­tance (LKA) Type II is a further ex­am­ple of level 1 self dri­ving.Level 2 („hands off“): The au­to­ma­ted sys­tem takes full con­trol of the ve­hi­cle (ac­ce­le­ra­ting, bra­king, and stee­ring). The dri­ver must mo­ni­tor the dri­ving and be pre­pa­red to in­ter­ve­ne im­me­dia­te­ly at any time if the au­to­ma­ted sys­tem fails to re­spond pro­per­ly. The short­hand „hands off“ is not meant to be taken li­te­ral­ly. In fact, con­tact bet­ween hand and wheel is often man­da­to­ry du­ring SAE 2 dri­ving, to con­firm that the dri­ver is ready to in­ter­ve­ne.Level 3 („eyes off“): The dri­ver can safe­ly turn their at­ten­ti­on away from the dri­ving tasks, e.g. the dri­ver can text or watch a movie. The ve­hi­cle will hand­le si­tua­tions that call for an im­me­dia­te re­spon­se, like emer­gen­cy bra­king. The dri­ver must still be pre­pa­red to in­ter­ve­ne within some li­mi­ted time, spe­ci­fied by the ma­nu­fac­tu­rer, when cal­led upon by the ve­hi­cle to do so. As an ex­am­ple, the 2018 Audi A8 Lu­xu­ry Sedan was the first com­mer­cial car to claim to be ca­pa­ble of level 3 self dri­ving. This par­ti­cu­lar car has a so-​called Traf­fic Jam Pilot. When ac­ti­va­ted by the human dri­ver, the car takes full con­trol of all aspec­ts of dri­ving in slow-​moving traf­fic at up to 60 ki­lo­me­tres per hour (37 mph). The func­tion works only on high­ways with a phy­si­cal bar­ri­er se­pa­ra­ting one stream of traf­fic from on­co­ming traf­fic.Level 4 („mind off“): As level 3, but no dri­ver at­ten­ti­on is ever re­qui­red for safe­ty, i.e. the dri­ver may safe­ly go to sleep or leave the dri­ver's seat. Self dri­ving is sup­por­ted only in li­mi­ted spa­ti­al areas (ge­ofen­ced) or under spe­cial cir­cums­tances, like traf­fic jams. Out­si­de of these areas or cir­cums­tances, the ve­hi­cle must be able to safe­ly abort the trip, i.e. park the car, if the dri­ver does not re­t­a­ke con­trol.Level 5 („stee­ring wheel op­tio­nal“): No human in­ter­ven­ti­on is re­qui­red at all. An ex­am­ple would be a ro­bo­tic taxi.

First watch the film about Goog­le's self-​driving car. Then work in groups
  • Coll­ect the be­ne­fits and dan­gers of au­to­ma­ted cars ac­cor­ding to the in­tro­duc­tion
  • Iden­ti­fy the po­ten­ti­al pro­blems with the dif­fe­rent le­vels of au­to­ma­ti­on in the text.
  • Think of si­tua­tions in which an au­to­ma­ted car needs to make ethi­cal or moral de­cis­i­ons. What could those be and how would you re­sol­ve these di­lem­mas?