• Television in the USA (reading exercise)
  • Anja Böckmann
  • 01.04.2020
  • Englisch
  • 10
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  • TV in the USA

    In the United States, television is available via broadcast (also known as "over-the-air" or OTA) – the earliest method of receiving television programming, which merely requires an antenna and an equipped internal or external tuner capable of picking up channels that transmit on the two principal broadcast bands, very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF), in order to receive the signal – and four conventional types of multichannel subscription television: cable, unencrypted satellite ("free-to-air"), direct-broadcast satellite television and IPTV (internet protocol television). There are also competing video services on the World Wide Web,  which have become an increasingly popular mode of television viewing  since the late 2000s, particularly with younger audiences as an  alternative or a supplement to the aforementioned traditional forms of viewing television content; the 2010s saw the development of several virtual MVPD services offering "skinny" tiers of channels originally developed for cable and satellite distribution at a reduced base price compared to providers utilizing the more established pay television distribution methods.

    As in other countries, television stations require a license to broadcast legally (which any prospective broadcaster can apply for through the FCC) and must comply with certain requirements (such as those involving programming of public affairs and educational interest, and regulations prohibiting the airing of indecent content) in order to retain it; the FCC's Board of Commissioners maintains oversight of the renewal of existing station licenses approaching their expiration, with individuals or groups who wish to oppose the granting of a renewal to a licensee based on any disagreement over rule compliance or any other issues inclined to contest it for consideration of revocation. Free-to-air and subscription television networks, however, are not required to file for a license to operate.

    Over-the-air and free-to-air television do not necessitate any monthly payments, while cable, direct broadcast satellite (DBS), IPTV and virtual MVPD services require monthly payments that vary depending on the number of channels that a subscriber chooses to pay for in a particular package. Channels are usually sold in groups (known as "tiers"), rather than singularly (or on an a la carte basis).

    1
    Read the text TV in the USA, then look at the statements. For each statement tick the correct answer true or false
    true
    false
    The earliest method of receiving TV programming is via broadcast and available since the late 2000s.
    Young people are replacing traditional forms of viewing television content with video services on the World Wide Web.
    If you want to report affairs, education and indecent content publicly, you can simply obtain a license for legal broadcasting.
    Over-the-air television is for free.