General information about commas:
four main groups
coordinator commas --> link more than just independent clauses
- follow the element that is in front of the first independent clause in a sentence
words: Therefore, I plan to go shopping.
phrases: As a result, I don't have any money left for this month.
dependent clauses: Because I have an empty closet, my mum recommended a shopping trip.
direct quotations: "Go shopping with your best friend", she said.
- link equal elements in a sentence, together with a coordinating conjunction
two independent clauses: His car was broke, so he bought a new car.
series of three or more words: He likes to play football, watch movies,listen to music, and to meet his friends.
series of three or more phrases: Firefighters have to work on weekends, at night, and on holidays.
- used before and after an element that gets inserted into the middle of an independent clause
words: My brother, however, refuses to clean his room.
phrases: My sister, on the other hand, always cleans her room.
nonrestrective phrases and clauses: Sam, her boyfriend, is really annoying.
Reporting verbs in direct quotations: "I've tried to learn how to bake dozens of times", she says, "but can't."
- used when certain elements are added to the end of a sentence
words: I like to eat lots of chocolate, too. I do not gain weight, however.
phrases: She plays her saxophone for half an hour every day, for example. She also sings a lot of songs, playing guitar.
tag questions: That's very nice of him, isn't it?
direct quotations: He smiles as he says, "Catch me if you can."
I had toast coffee fruits and some tomatos for breakfast.
She cries as she shouts "I can't believe you betrayed me!"
Nervously I looked for my driving license.
After 12 years of school I finally passed my final exams.
My mother who just celebrated her fiftieth birthday enjoys hiking every summer.
Because it is my birthday I get a lot of presents.
"May I have something to eat" he asked.
My sister however refuses to stop drinking.
I like to go swimming too.
He plays table tennis beating me most of the time.
You really like him don't you?
Jill likes cheese cake but Fred likes chocolat cake.
When my best friend was in Italy he often wrote to me.
My brother's girlfriend who comes from Austria is really nice.
Even if it takes all day I am going to clean the whole room.
I like to sing dance and to play tennis.
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